Saturday, May 23, 2020
Ã¢â¬ËMurica!!! The land of the free! The home of the brave! Call it what you want! Dream about it, celebrate it and worship it! Just know, youÃ¢â¬â¢re worshipping one of the most hypocritical countries there is! How do I know!? One word: Slavery! Freedom is never equal. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s always been the reality. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go back to the 1800s. Slavery was the basis of Southern society and robbed millions of African Americans of their freedom. So what did they do? They got it back. But, not every runaway slave dreamed of the same freedom. Between those who made it North and out of the Cotton Belt, there were various different perceptions of freedom. Two examples of this are Harriet Jacobs, a female slave from North Carolina who eventually runs away to the North and Frederick Douglass, a Maryland slave who escapes and becomes a leading abolitionist. To document their lives, both would go on to write autobiographies, with Douglass penning Narrative on the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave and Jacobs writing Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl under the name Linda Brent. Each books tell the story of how the author became free and the journey they took to get there. Even though they both encounter the harshness of slavery and experience similar successes once they escape it, the circumstances regarding their situations are completely different. These circumstances play a huge role in deciding their fates. Stemming from that fact, the types of freedom each is looking for becomes differentShow MoreRelatedSharing The Same Fate in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIs it possible for two people who have never interacted with each other throughout their lives to share the same fate? In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck is a young boy who decides to run away from his abusive father, accompanied by an escaped slave who believes that he will be sold and separated from his family. Huck has no choice but to take on an adventurous journey, which allows his relationship with the slave, Jim, to blossom while testing their mental and physical skills. In correlationRead MoreThe Death Of Harriet s Punishment1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespaternalism, but as we can see, the severity of punishments was not equal. Charles suffered greatly for crimes he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t even involved in yet he still faced the brunt of the masterÃ¢â¬â¢s and overseerÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath. The extent of HarrietÃ¢â¬â¢s punishment ranged from being slapped by Dr. Flint. There did not seem to be common ground between the three autobiographies. Partially due to the time it was written, Kate DrumgooldÃ¢â¬â¢s recollection never once details any forceful or unbearable punishment laid upon the youngRead MoreHarriet Ann Jacobs s Life Essay1659 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBorn as a slave in Edenton, North Carolina in 1813, Harriet Ann Jacobs was raised by her slave mother and father. Since HarrietÃ¢â¬â¢s father was very skillful in his tra de of carpentry, he was allowed to pay his mistress 200 dollars a year to work at his trade and manage his own affairs. As a result, his family was able to live comfortably in their home, and Harriet was Ã¢â¬Å"fondly shielded that [she] never dreamed [she] was a piece of merchandise, trusted to them for safe keeping, and liable to be demandedRead MoreThe Life Of A Slave Girl, By Harriet Tubman And The Fight For Freedom1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbeholder, the notion of freedom varies according to the person describing it. In the context of slavery, for example, the concept of freedom is different in the perspective of enslaved women, enslaved men, or white women. To black women, the idea of freedom was conceived around the concept of family. For white women, freedom meant achieving equal footing with men, and getting their natural rights. And, for the enslaved black man, the idea that they could grasp their own freedom was first found throughRead MoreIncidents Throughout The Life Of A Slave Girl By Harriet Jacobs1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIncidents in the life of a slave girlÃ¢â¬â¢ written by Harriet Jacobs and published by L.Maria Child (in 1831), is an autobiography by the author herself which documents Jacobs life as a slave and therefore The book starts when Jacobs is born as a slave in a city of North Carolina and then continues through her escape, her status as a runaway fugitive in the North, and finally her path to freedom when one of her northern white friends buys her in the year 1852. Incidents in the Life of a Slave GirlRead MoreSummary Of Incidents In The Life Of A Slave Girl1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬ËIncidents in the life of a slave girlÃ¢â¬â¢ written by Harriet Jacobs and published by L.Maria Child (in 1831), is an autobiography by the author herself which documents Jacobs life as a slave and therefore The book starts when Jacobs is born as a slave in a city of North Carolina and then continues through her escape, her status as a runaway fugitive in the North, and finally her path to freedom when one of her northern white friends buys her in the year 1852. Incidents in the Life of a Slave GirlRead MoreThe Life Of A Slave Girl By Harriet Jacob993 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHarriet JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, depicts a personal and true account of how woman were sexually and physically abused rather than just physically abuses as that of an enslaved man. Enslaved woman struggled tremendously to not only be considered equal to man though to be seen equal pure and virtuous identical to the white women. JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s female slave narrative was a special kind of autobiography, were she not only used another person to represent her, however, she wanted the readerRead MoreIncidents During The Life Of A Slave Girl By Harriet Jacobs1818 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSlave Girl Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs is an Autobiography from the point of view of a southern slave. She has named herself Linda Brent in the book to keep her identity anonymous. The book takes place in between 1820-1840 in which slavery was still legal and common throughout the United States south. The book begins in an unnamed town in the south in which the protagonist was raised in as a slave. Harriet Jacobs wrote the book to shine light on how slaves were treatedRead MoreHarriet Jacob And Phillis Wheatley1904 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesHarriet Jacob and Phillis Wheatley, Incident in the Life of a Slave Girl and On Being Brought from Africa to America both presents the existential conditions of being a black woman in a male dominated society. Despite their years span differences, both author present different, yet similar views of enslavement in America where black women struggle to reclaim their humanity and seek freedom within their society. For both Harriet and Phillis, both women used literacy as their voice to raise concernRead MoreSummary Of Incidents In The Life Of A Slave Girl1785 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Introduction Ã¢â¬ËIncidents in the life of a slave girlÃ¢â¬â¢ written by Harriet Jacobs and published by L.Maria Child (in 1831), is an autobiography by the author herself which documents Jacobs life as a slave and therefore The book starts when Jacobs is born as a slave in a city of North Carolina and then continues through her escape, her status as a runaway fugitive in the North, and finally her path to freedom when one of her northern white friends buys her in the year 1852. Incidents in the Life
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Untreated coeliac disease can be life threatening. Coeliac are more likely to be afflicted with problems relating to malabsorption, including osteoporosis, tooth enamel defects, central and peripheral nervous system disease, pancreatic disease, , organ disorders (gall bladder, liver, and spleen), and gynaecological disorders. Untreated coeliac disease has also been linked an increased risk of certain types of cancer, especially intestinal lymphoma A diagnosis of celiac disease does not mean giving up all your favourite foods. It just means adapting them to be gluten free. Many different gluten-free products, baking mixes, and recipes are available. A support group is a great resource for finding out which recipes and products are bestÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Carbohydrates such as rice, potatoes, bananas and gluten free pasta and bread are needed by the body for energy (glucose) for the brain and muscleÃ¢â¬â¢s and is used for respiration. Fat provides energy, cushions your organs and allows the body to absorb necessary nutrients such as vitamins A, D, E and K, examples of unsaturated fat include nuts, avocado, tuna and salmon. The body needs vitamins and minerals in order to grow and develop Fibre is important because it: stimulates the digestive tract and helps it work efficiently; encourages the presence of health-giving bacteria in the large intestine. A good source of fibre is include brown rice, high fibre/multigrain gluten-free breads. Coeliac disease affects approximately 1 in every 100 people within the united kingdom. It does not discriminate against age although it is more common among people with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease and many others. Treatment for Coeliac disease. Celiac disease is treated by not eating gluten. This can be difficult because gluten is in many foods, but a dietician can help adjust someones diet to cut out gluten. It is important not to start a gluten-free diet unless you are truly diagnosed with celiac disease. In general, avoid the following foods unless theyre labelled as gluten-free or made with corn, rice, soy or other gluten-free grain.Show MoreRelatedCoeliac Disease Harms the Lining of the Small Intestine529 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesCoeliac disease Coeliac disease is a condition that harms the lining of the small intestine and stops it from absorbing parts of food that are important for staying healthy. The damage is cause by taking in gluten. 1 in 100 in UK have coeliac disease, 1 in 300 in Ireland, 1 in 250 in Italy and 1 in 133 in the USA. Studies have shown that in Europe, USA and other places coeliac disease has enlarged as much as 4 times in the last 30 years. The cause of coeliac disease is sensitivity to gluten. GlutenRead MoreThe, No Bread For Thanksgiving1148 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWorld War II that a cause was attributed to Ã¢â¬Å"Gee-HerterÃ¢â¬â¢s diseaseÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âthe name of this unusual disorder. A shortage of grain led a Dutch pediatrician, Willem-Karel Dicke, to draw the conclusion that wheat was the culprit (Gut). He made this connection when the death rate of children with this disease went from about 35% to 0% during the grain shortage (Sanghavi). Today, Gee-HerterÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, more commonly kno wn as coeliac or celiac disease, is better understood. Advanced methods in molecular biologyRead MoreProblems Associated with Celiac Disease and Lactose Intolerance1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrepairing and structuring of every cell. Inadequate production of digestive enzymes can have a negative impact on the breakdown of food into the various nutrients our bodies require. Problems associated with Celiac Disease and Lactose Intolerance Ã¢â¬Å"Celiac disease is an inflammatory disease of the upper small intestine caused by intolerance to gluten.Ã¢â¬ The small intestine has an inner lining of cells which contain villi (Marks). The substance, known as gluten damages the villi which line the small intestineRead MoreCeliac Disease And Its Effects On The Body System2429 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Celiac disease seems to be on an up rise today. You now walk into grocery stores and restaurants and see gluten-free food everywhere. Thankfully, for the celiac disease community, life has become a little easier with these accommodations. When most people hear celiac disease many just think gluten-free diets, but they do not realize that celiac disease can affect all parts of the body and mind, or that the disease has a higher prevalence in women. It is a new lifestyle that many have to take onRead MoreCeliac Disease : An Overview On How It Affects The Body And Mind2448 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesCeliac Disease: An Overview on How It Affects the Body and Mind. Sarah LoTempio NU 127 (Professional Paper) March 24, 2015 Celiac disease seems to be on an up rise today. You now walk into grocery stores and restaurants and see gluten-free food everywhere. Thankfully, for the celiac disease community, life has become a little easier with these accommodations. When most people hear celiac disease many just think gluten-free diets, but they do not realize that celiac disease can affectRead MoreCeliac Disease8765 Words Ã |Ã 36 Pages50 Celiac Disease Dascha C. Weir, MD Ciaran Kelly, MD Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy secondary to permanent sensitivity to wheat gluten and related proteins in rye and barley. It results in characteristic histologic changes consisting of inÃ¯ ¬âammation, crypt hyperplasia, and villous atrophy of the small intestine in genetically susceptible individuals. SigniÃ¯ ¬ cant variability in the clinical presentation of CD in the pediatric population complicates recognition ofRead MoreEssay on Celiac665 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Origin of the name/history of the disease nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The name celiac comes from Ã¢â¬Å"coeliacÃ¢â¬ which is derived from the Greek Koilia, which means belly. The Ã¢â¬Å"coeliac fluxÃ¢â¬ is an old expression meaning the same as diarrhea. The disease celiac is not just diarrhea though it just means that the disease pertains to the abdomen. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The celiac disease comes from early farmers and hunters. But because the wheat and grain of the cropsRead MoreDetermining The Success Of A Restaurant Business1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswith gluten intolerance, or permanent damage to the small intestine for people with coeliac disease (National Foundation for Celiac Awareness, 2015). Piko offers an eggs benedict which caters to different types of dietary requirements, a vegetarian will choose baby spinach, a person with an unrestricted diet may choose bacon benedict, a pescatarian may choose the smoked salmon benedict, a person with coeliac disease would something gluten free such as the Ã¢â¬Å"Warm bacon, lettuce, tomato asparagus saladÃ¢â¬ Read MoreCeliac Disease : A Disease2422 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Celiac disease, which is also called coeliac disease, is a genetic autoimmune disease that injures the small intestine. Gluten is a protein that is in some wheat, barley, and rye. It is also a new fad diet and being gluten intolerant is something a majority of the population may claim. However, for those who really have celiac disease it is more serious. In fact, Despite popular belief, celiac disease is a serious genetic autoimmune disease, not the latest fad diet, according to the organizationRead MoreThe Best Present Treatment For Celiac Disease ( Cd ) Is A Gluten Free Diet ( Gfd )955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesResults Across the research, there have been commonalities and similarities. Most of the authors agree that the best present treatment for celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-free diet (GFD). A cross-sectional age-matched study done on 18 Italian children, aged four to 10 years, demonstrated that there were statistical differences in eating habits and frequency of eating among CD children and a control group. These dietary intakes were measured using the semi-quantitative Block Food Frequency Questionnaire
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see Damon for the next few days. Father said he was spending time at the camp, an idea that clearly filled him with no small amount of pleasure. Father hoped that Damon spending time there would lead to him rejoining the army, even though I figured his hours would be spent mostly gambling and talking about women. We will write a custom essay sample on StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s Diaries: Origins Chapter 20 or any similar topic only for you Order Now I, for one, was glad. Of course, I missed my brother, but I would never be able to spend so much uninterrupted, unquestioned time with Katherine if Damon was around. Truthfully, although I felt disloyal to say it, Father and I adapted well to Damon being gone. We began taking meals together, companionably playing hands of cribbage after dinner. Father would share his thoughts about the day, about the overseer, and about his plans to buy new horses from a farm in Kentucky. For the hundredth time, I realized how much he wanted me to take over the estate, and for the first time, I felt excitement in that possibility. It was because of Katherine. IÃ¢â¬â¢d taken to spending each night in her chambers, leaving just before work began in the fields. She hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t bared her fangs since that night in the woods. It was as if that secret meeting in the forest had changed everything. She needed me to keep her secret, and I needed her to keep me whole. In her small, dim bedroom, everything was passionate and perfectÃ¢â¬âit almost felt as if we were newlyweds. Of course, I wondered how it would work, me growing older each year as Katherine stayed just as young and beautiful. But that was a question for later, after the fear of the vampire scourge was over, after we were engaged, after weÃ¢â¬â¢d settled into a life without hiding. Ã¢â¬Å"I know youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been spending time with young Katherine,Ã¢â¬ Father said one night at the dinner table, as Alfred cleared the table and brought Father his well-worn deck of cards for us to play. Ã¢â¬Å"Y es.Ã¢â¬ I watched as Alfred poured sherry into FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s glass. In the flickering candlelight, the normally pink liquid looked like blood. He held the decanter to me, but I shook my head. Ã¢â¬Å"So has young Damon,Ã¢â¬ Father observed, taking the card deck in his thick fingers and slowly palming it from hand to hand. I sighed, annoyed that Damon had once again come into a conversation about Katherine. Ã¢â¬Å"She needs a friend. Friends,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"That she does. And IÃ¢â¬â¢m glad that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been able to provide her with companionship,Ã¢â¬ Father said. He placed the cards facedown on the table and glanced at me. Ã¢â¬Å"Y know, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know very much about her ou Atlanta relations. IÃ¢â¬â¢d heard of her through one of my shipping partners. Very sad, a girl orphaned by my shipping partners. Very sad, a girl orphaned by ShermanÃ¢â¬â¢s battle, but there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t very many other Pierces that say they know of her.Ã¢â¬ I shifted nervously. Ã¢â¬Å"Pierce is a common enough name. And maybe she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be affiliated with some of her relations.Ã¢â¬ I took a deep breath. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure there are other Salvatores out there that we havenÃ¢â¬â¢t heard of.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a good point,Ã¢â¬ Father said, taking a sip of his sherry. Ã¢â¬Å"Salvatore isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a common name, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s a good one. Which is why I hope you and Damon know what youÃ¢â¬â¢re getting into.Ã¢â¬ I looked up sharply. Ã¢â¬Å"Fighting over the same girl,Ã¢â¬ Father said simply. Ã¢â¬Å"I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want you to lose your relationship. I know I donÃ¢â¬â¢t always see eye to eye with your brother, but heÃ¢â¬â¢s your flesh and blood.Ã¢â¬ I cringed, the familiar phrase suddenly complicated. But if Father noticed, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t say anything. He picked up the deck and glanced at me expectantly. Ã¢â¬Å"Shall we play?Ã¢â¬ he asked, already beginning to deal six cards to me. I picked up my stack, but instead of looking at the cards, I glanced out of the corner of my eye, to see if I could spot any movement from the carriage house through the window. Alfred walked into the room. Ã¢â¬Å"Sir, you have a guest.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A guest?Ã¢â¬ Father asked curiously, half standing up from the table. We rarely had guests come to the estate unless there was a party. Father always preferred meeting acquaintances in town or at the tavern. Ã¢â¬Å"Please forgive my intrusion.Ã¢â¬ Katherine walked in, her thin arms filled with a bouquet of flowers of all different shapes and sizesÃ¢â¬âroses and hydrangeas and lilies of the valley. Ã¢â¬Å"Emily and I were picking the flowers by the pond, and I thought you might appreciate some color.Ã¢â¬ Katherine offered a small grin as Father stiffly held out his hand for her to shake. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d barely had a four-word conversation with Katherine since sheÃ¢â¬â¢d arrived. I held my breath, as anxious as I would be if I were introducing Father to my betrothed. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you, Miss Pierce,Ã¢â¬ Father said. Ã¢â¬Å"And our house is your house. Please donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel you need to ask permission to come visit. WeÃ¢â¬â¢d love to have you, whenever you wish to spend time with us.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you. I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be an imposition,Ã¢â¬ she said, batting her eyelashes in a way that was irresistible for any man. Ã¢â¬Å"Please, have a seat,Ã¢â¬ Father said, settling down at the head of the table. Ã¢â¬Å"My son and I were just preparing to play a hand of cards, but we can certainly put them away.Ã¢â¬ Katherine eyed our game. Ã¢â¬Å"Cribbage! My father and I always used to play. May I join you?Ã¢â¬ She flashed a smile as she settled into my chair and picked up my hand. Instantly, she frowned and began rearranging the cards. How could she, when worried for her very existence, be so carefree and enchanting? Ã¢â¬Å"Why, of course, Miss Pierce. If youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to play, IÃ¢â¬â¢d be honored, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure my son would be happy to help you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, I know how to play.Ã¢â¬ She set a card in the center of the table. Ã¢â¬Å"Good,Ã¢â¬ Father said, putting his own card on top of hers. Ã¢â¬Å"And, you know, I do worry about you and your maid, all alone in the carriage house. If you want to move to the main house, please, just let me know and your wish is my command. I thought that you would like some privacy, but with things as they are and all the danger Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Father trailed off. Katherine shook her head, a shadow of a frown crossing her face. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m not frightened. I lived through a lot in Atlanta,Ã¢â¬ she said, placing an ace on the table faceup. Ã¢â¬Å"Besides, the servantsÃ¢â¬â¢ quarters are so close, they would hear me if I screamed.Ã¢â¬ As Father placed a seven of spades on the table, Katherine touched my knee, slowly brushing it with a feathery stroke. I flushed at the intimate contact when my father was so close, but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want her to stop. Katherine placed a five of diamonds on the card pile. Ã¢â¬Å"Thirteen. I think I may be on a lucky streak, Mr. Salvatore,Ã¢â¬ she said, moving her peg one spot on the cribbage board. Father broke into a delighted grin. Ã¢â¬Å"Y ouÃ¢â¬â¢re quite a girl. StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s never really understood the rules of this game.Ã¢â¬ The door slammed, and Damon walked into the room, his rucksack over his shoulder. He shrugged it off onto the floor, and Alfred picked it up. Damon didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to notice. Ã¢â¬Å"Looks like IÃ¢â¬â¢m missing all the fun,Ã¢â¬ Damon said, his tone accusatory as his gaze flicked from Father back to me. Ã¢â¬Å"Y are,Ã¢â¬ Father said simply. Then he actually ou glanced up and smiled at him. Ã¢â¬Å"Y oung Katherine here is proving that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s not only beautiful but that she has brains, too. An intoxicatingly infuriating combination,Ã¢â¬ Father said, noticing that Katherine had racked up an additional point on the board when he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t looking. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you,Ã¢â¬ Katherine said, deftly discarding and picking up a new card. Ã¢â¬Å"Y ouÃ¢â¬â¢re making me blush. Although I do admit that I think your compliments are just an elaborate plan for distracting me so you can win,Ã¢â¬ Katherine said, barely bothering to acknowledge Damon. I strode over to Damon. We stood together in the doorway, watching Katherine and Father. Damon crossed his arms over his chest. Ã¢â¬Å"What is she doing here?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Playing cards.Ã¢â¬ I shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you really think thatÃ¢â¬â¢s wise?Ã¢â¬ Damon lowered his voice. Ã¢â¬Å"Given his opinions on her Ã¢â¬ ¦ provenance.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But donÃ¢â¬â¢t you see? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s brilliant. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s charming him. I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t heard him laugh so hard since Mother died.Ã¢â¬ I felt suddenly delirious with happiness. This was better than anything I could have planned. Instead of trying to come up with an elaborate plot to push Father off the vampire trail, Father would simply see that Katherine was human. That she still had emotions and wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do any harm save for ruining his winning streak at cribbage. Ã¢â¬Å"So what?Ã¢â¬ Damon asked. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a madman on the hunt. A few smiles wonÃ¢â¬â¢t change that.Ã¢â¬ Katherine erupted into giggles as Father put down a card. I lowered my voice. Ã¢â¬Å"I think if we let him know about her, heÃ¢â¬â¢d change his mind. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d realize that she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean any harm.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Are you crazy?Ã¢â¬ Damon hissed, clenching my arm. His breath smelled like whiskey. Ã¢â¬Å"If Father knew about Katherine, heÃ¢â¬â¢d kill her in an instant! How do you know heÃ¢â¬â¢s not already planning something?Ã¢â¬ Just then Katherine let out a peal of laughter. Father threw his head back, adding his hoarse laugh to hers. Damon and I fell silent as she glanced up from her cards. She found us with her eyes and winked. But since Damon and I were standing side by side, it was impossible to tell who it was meant for. How to cite StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s Diaries: Origins Chapter 20, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Feminist Thought in the Matrix of Domination From Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990), pp. 221Ã¢â¬â238 Black feminist thought demonstrates Black womens emerging power as agents of knowledge. By portraying African-American women as self-defined, self-reliant individuals confronting race, gender, and class oppression, Afrocentric feminist thought speaks to the importance that oppression, Afrocentric feminist thought speaks to the importance that knowledge plays in empowering oppressed people. One distinguishing feature of Black feminist thought is its insistence that both the changed consciousness of individuals and the social transformation of political and economic institutions constitute essential ingredients for social change. New knowledge is important for both dimensions of change. Knowledge is a vitally important part of the social relations of domination and resistance. By objectifying African-American women and recasting our experiences to serve the interests of elite white men, much of the Eurocentric masculinist worldview fosters Black womens subordination. But placing Black womens experiences at the center of analysis offers fresh insights on the prevailing concepts, paradigms, and epistemologies of this worldview and on its feminist and Afrocentric critiques. Viewing the world through a both/and conceptual lens of the simultaneity of race, class, and gender oppression and of the need for a humanist vision of community creates new possibilities for an empowering Afrocentric feminist knowledge. Many Black feminist intellectuals have long thought about the world in this way because this is the way we experience the world. Afrocentric feminist thought offers two significant contributions toward furthering our understanding of the important connections among knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. First, Black feminist thought fosters a fundamental paradigmatic shift in how we think about oppression. By embracing a paradigm of race, class, and gender as interlocking systems of oppression, Black feminist thought reconceptualizes the social relations of domination and resistance. Second, Black feminist thought addresses ongoing epistemological debates in feminist theory and in the sociology of knowledge concerning ways of assessing truth. Offering subordinate groups new knowledge about their own experiences can be empowering. But revealing new ways of knowing that allow subordinate groups to define their own reality has far greater implications. Reconceptualizing Race, Class, and Gender as Interlocking Systems of Oppression What I really feel is radical is trying to make coalitions with people who are different from you, maintains Barbara Smith. I feel it is radical to be dealing with race and sex and class and sexual identity all at one time. I think that is really radical because it has never been done before. Black feminist thought fosters a fundamental paradigmatic shift that rejects additive approaches to oppression. Instead of starting with gender and then adding in other variables such as age, sexual orientation, race, social class, and religion, Bla ck feminist thought sees these distinctive systems of oppression as being part of one overarching structure of domination. Viewing relations of domination for Black women for any given sociohistorical context as being structured via a system of interlocking race, class, and gender oppression expands the focus of analysis from merely describing the similarities and differences distinguishing these systems of oppression and focuses greater attention on how they interconnect. Assuming that each system needs the others in order to function creates a distinct theoretical stance that stimulates the rethinking of basic social science concepts. Afrocentric feminist notions of family reflect this reconceptualization process. Black womens experiences as blood mothers, other mothers, and community other mothers reveal that the mythical norm of a heterosexual, married couple, nuclear family with a nonworking spouse and a husband earning a family wage is far from being natural, universal and preferred but instead is deeply embedded in specific race and class formations. Placing African-American women in the center of analysis not only reveals much-needed information about Black womens experiences but also questions Eurocentric masculinist perspectives on family Black womens experiences and the Afrocentric feminist thought rearticulating them also challenge prevailing definitions of community. Black womens actions in the struggle or group survival suggest a vision of community that stands in opposition to that extant in the dominant culture. The definition of community implicit in the market model sees community as arbitrary and fragile, structured fundamentally by competition and domination. In contrast, Afrocentric models of community stress connections, caring, and personal accountability. As cultural workers African-American women have rejected the generalized ideology of domination advanced by the dominant group in order to conserve Afrocentric conceptualizations of community. Denied access to the podium, Black women have been unable to spend time theorizing about alternative conceptualizations of community. Instead, through daily actions African-American women have created alternative communities that empower. This vision of community sustained by African-American women in conjunction with African-American men addresses the larger issue of reconceptualizing power. The type of Black womens power discussed here does resemble feminist theories of power which emphasize energy and community. However, in contrast to this body of literature whose celebration of womens power is often accompanied by a lack of attention to the importance of power as domination, Black womens experiences as mothers, community other mothers, educators, church leaders, labor union center-women, and community leaders seem to suggest that power as energy can be fostered by creative acts of resistance. The spheres of influence created and sustained by African-American women are not meant solely to provide a respite from oppressive situations or a retreat from their effects. Rather, these Black female spheres of influence constitute potential sanctuaries where individual Black women and men are nurtured in order to confront oppressive social institutions. Power from this perspective is a creative power used for the good of the community, whether that community is conceptualized as ones family, church community, or the next generation of the communitys children. By making the community stronger, African-American women become empowered, and that same community can serve as a source of support when Black women encounter race, gender, and class oppression. . . Approaches that assume that race, gender, and class are interconnected have immediate practical applications. For example, African-American women continue to be inadequately protected by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The primary purpose of the statute is to eradicate all aspects of discrimination. But judicial treatment of Black womens employment discrimination claims has encouraged Black women to identify race or sex as the so-called primary discrimination. To resolve the inequities that confront Black women, counsels Scarborough, the courts must first correctly conceptualize them as Black women, a distinct class protected by Title VII. Such a shift, from protected categories to protected classes of people whose Title VII claims might be based on more than two discriminations, would work to alter the entire basis of current antidiscrimination efforts. Reconceptualizing phenomena such as the rapid growth of female-headed households in African-American communities would also benefit from a race-, class-, and gender-inclusive analysis. Case studies of Black women heading households must be attentive to racially segmented local labor markets and community patterns, to changes in local political economies specific to a given city or region, and to established racial and gender ideology for a given location. This approach would go far to deconstruct Eurocentric, masculinist analyses that implicitly rely on controlling images of the matriarch or the welfare mother as guiding conceptual premises. . . Black feminist thought that rearticulates experiences such as these fosters an enhanced theoretical understanding of how race, gender, and class oppression are part of a single, historically created system. The Matrix of Domination Additive models of oppression are firmly rooted in the either/or dichotomous thinking of Eurocentric, masculinist thought. One must be either Black or white in such thought systemspersons of ambiguous racial and ethnic identity constantly battle with questions such as what are your, anyway? This emphasis on quantification and categorization occurs in conjunction with the belief that either/or categories must be ranked. The search for certainty of this sort requires that one side of a dichotomy be privileged while its other is denigrated. Privilege becomes defined in relation to its other. Replacing additive models of oppression with interlocking ones creates possibilities for new paradigms. The significance of seeing race, class, and gender as interlocking systems of oppression is that such an approach fosters a paradigmatic shift of thinking inclusively about other oppressions, such as age, sexual orientation, religion, and ethnicity. Race, class, and gender represent the three systems of oppression that most heavily affect African-American women. But these systems and the economic, political, and ideological conditions that support them may not be the most fundamental oppressions, and they certainly affect many more groups than Black women. Other people of color, Jews, the poor white women, and gays and lesbians have all had similar ideological justifications offered for their subordination. All categories of humans labeled Others have been equated to one another, to animals, and to nature. Placing African-American women and other excluded groups in the center of analysis opens up possibilities for a both/and conceptual stance, one in which all groups possess varying amounts of penalty and privilege in one historically created system. In this system, for example, white women are penalized by their gender but privileged by their race. Depending on the context, an individual may be an oppressor, a member of an oppressed group, or simultaneously oppressor and oppressed. Adhering to a both/and conceptual stance does not mean that race, class, and gender oppression are interchangeable. For example, whereas race, class, and gender oppression operate on the social structural level of institutions, gender oppression seems better able to annex the basic power of the erotic and intrude in personal relationships via family dynamics and within individual consciousness. This may be because racial oppression has fostered historically concrete communities among African-Americans and other racial/ethnic groups. These communities have stimulated cultures of resistance. While these communities segregate Blacks from whites, they simultaneously provide counter-institutional buffers that subordinate groups such as African-Americans use to resist the ideas and institutions of dominant groups. Social class may be similarly structured. Traditionally conceptualized as a relationship of individual employees to their employers, social class might be better viewed as a relationship of communities to capitalist political economies. Moreover, significant overlap exists between racial and social class oppression when viewing them through the collective lens of family and community. Existing community structures provide a primary line of resistance against racial and class oppression. But because gender cross-cuts these structures, it finds fewer comparable institutional bases to foster resistance. Embracing a both/and conceptual stance moves us from additive, separate systems approaches to oppression and toward what I now see as the more fundamental issue of the social relations of domination. Race, class, and gender constitute axes of oppression that characterize Black womens experiences within a more generalized matrix of domination. Other groups may encounter different dimensions of the matrix, such as sexual orientation, religion, and age, but the overarching relationship is one of domination and the types of activism it generates. Bell Hooks labels this matrix a politic of domination and describes how it operates along interlocking axes of race, class, and gender oppression. This politic of domination refers to the ideological ground that they share, which is a belief in domination, and a belief in the notions of superior and inferior, which are components of all of those systems. For me its like a house, they share the foundation, but the foundation is the ideological beliefs around which notions of domination are constructed. Johnella Butler claims that new methodologies growing from this new paradigm would be non-hierarchical and would refuse primacy to either race, class, gender, or ethnicity, demanding instead a recognition of their matrix-like interaction. Race, class, and gender may not be the most fundamental or important systems of oppression, but they have most profoundly affected African-American women. One significant dimension of Black feminist thought is its potential to reveal insights about the social relations of domination organized along other axes such as religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and age. Investigating Black womens particular experiences thus promises to reveal much about the more universal process of domination. Multiple Levels of Domination In addition to being structured along axes such as race, gender, and social class, the matrix of domination is structured on several levels. People experience and resist oppression on three levels: the level of personal biography; the group or community level of the cultural context created by race, class, and gender; and the systemic level of social institutions. Black feminist thought emphasizes all three levels as sites of domination and as potential sites of resistance. Each individual has a unique personal biography made up of concrete experiences, values, motivations, and emotions. No two individuals occupy the same social space; thus no two biographies are identical. Human ties can be freeing and empowering, as is the case with Black womens heterosexual love relationships or in the power of motherhood in African-American families and communities. Human ties can also be confining and oppressive. Situations of domestic violence and abuse or cases in which controlling images foster Black womens internalized oppression represent domination on the personal level. The same situation can look quite different depending on the consciousness one brings to interpret it. This level of individual consciousness is a fundamental area where new knowledge can generate change. Traditional accounts assume that power as domination operates from the top down by forcing and controlling unwilling victims to bend to the will of more powerful superiors. But these accounts fail to account for questions concerning why, for example, women stay with abusive men even with ample opportunity to leave or why slaves did not kill their owners more often. The willingness of the victim to collude in her or his own victimization becomes lost. They also fail to account for sustained resistance by victims, even when chances for victory appear remote. By emphasizing the power of self-definition and the necessity of a free mind, Black feminist thought speaks to the importance African-American women thinkers place on consciousness as a sphere of freedom. Black women intellectuals realize that domination operates not only by structuring power from the top down but by simultaneously annexing the power as energy of those on the bottom for its own ends. In their efforts to rearticulate the standpoint of African-American women as a group, Black feminist thinkers offer individual African-American women the conceptual tools to resist oppression. The cultural context formed by those experiences and ideas that are shared with other members of a group or community which give meaning to individual biographies constitutes a second level at which domination is experienced and resisted. Each individual biography is rooted in several overlapping cultural contextsfor example, groups defined by race, social class, age, gender, religion, and sexual orientation. The cultural component contributes, among other things, the concepts used in thinking and acting, group validation of an individuals interpretation of concepts, the thought models used in the acquisition of knowledge, and standards used to evaluate individual thought and behavior. The most cohesive cultural contexts are those with identifiable histories, geographic locations, and social institutions. For Black women African-American communities have provided the location for an Afrocentric group perspective to endure. Subjugated knowledges, such as a Black womens culture of resistance, develop in cultural contexts controlled by oppressed groups. Dominant groups aim to replace subjugated knowledge with their own specialized thought because they realize that gaining control over this dimension of subordinate groups lives simplifies control. While efforts to nfluence this dimension of an oppressed groups experiences can be partially successful, this level is more difficult to control than dominant groups would have us believe. For example, adhering to externally derived standards of beauty leads many African-American women to dislike their skin color or hair texture. Similarly, internalizing Eurocentric gender ideology leads some Black men to abuse Black women. These are cases of the successful infusion of the dominant groups specialized thought into the everyday cultural context of African-Americans. But the long-standing existence of a Black womens culture of resistance as expressed through Black womens relationships with one another, the Black womens blues tradition, and the voices of contemporary African-American women writers all attest to the difficulty of eliminating the cultural context as a fundamental site of resistance. Domination is also experienced and resisted on the third level of social institutions controlled by the dominant group: namely, schools, churches, the media, and other formal organizations. These institutions expose individuals to the specialized thought representing the dominant groups standpoint and interests. While such institutions offer the promise of both literacy and other skills that can be used for individual empowerment and social transformation, they simultaneously require docility and passivity. Such institutions would have us believe that the theorizing of elites constitutes the whole of theory. The existence of African-American women thinkers such as Maria Stewart, Sojourner Truth, Zora Neale Hurston, and Fannie Lou Hamer who, though excluded from and/or marginalized within such institutions, continued to produce theory effectively opposes this hegemonic view. Moreover, the more recent resurgence of Black feminist thought within these institutions, the case of the outpouring of contemporary Black feminist thought in history and literature, directly challenges the Eurocentric masculinist thought pervading these institutions. Resisting the Matrix of Domination Domination operates by seducing, pressuring, or forcing African-American women and members of subordinated groups to replace individual and cultural ways of knowing with the dominant groups specialized thought. As a result, suggests Audre Lorde, the true focus of revolutionary change is never merely the oppressive situations which we seek to escape, but that piece of the oppressor which is planted deep within each of us. Or as Toni Cade Bambara succinctly states, revolution begins with the self, in the self. Lorde and Bambaras suppositions raise an important issue for Black feminist intellectuals and for all scholars and activists working for social change. Although most individuals have little difficulty identifying their own victimization within some major system of oppressionwhether it be by race, social class, religion, physical ability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, age or genderthey typically fail to see how their thoughts and actions uphold someone elses subordination. Thus white feminists routinely point with confidence to their oppression as women but resist seeing how much their white skin privileges them. African-Americans who possess eloquent analyses of racism often persist in viewing poor white women as symbols of white power. The radical left fares little better. If only people of color and women could see their true class interests, they argue, class solidarity would eliminate racism and sexism. In essence, each group identifies the oppression with which it feels most comfortable as being fundamental and classifies all others as being of lesser importance. Oppression is filled with such contradictions because these approaches fail to recognize that a matrix of domination contains few pure victims or oppressors. Each individual derives varying amounts of penalty and privilege from the multiple systems of oppression which frame everyones lives. A broader focus stresses the interlocking nature of oppressions that are structured on multiple levels, from the individual to the social structural, and which are part of a larger matrix of domination. Adhering to this inclusive model provides the conceptual space needed for each individual to see that she or he is both a member of multiple dominant groups and a member of multiple subordinate groups. Shifting the analysis to investigating how the matrix of domination is structured along certain axesrace, gender, and class being the axes of investigation for AfricanAmerican womenreveals that different systems of oppression may rely in varying degrees on systemic versus interpersonal mechanisms of domination. Empowerment involves rejecting the dimensions of knowledge, whether personal, cultural, or institutional, that perpetuate objectification and dehumanization. African-American women and other individuals in subordinate groups become empowered when we understand and use those dimensions of our individual, group, and disciplinary ways of knowing that foster our humanity as fully human subjects. This is the case when Black women value our self-definitions, participate in a Black womens activist tradition, invoke an Afrocentric feminist epistemology as central to our worldview, and view the skills gained in schools as part of a focused education for Black community development. C. Wright Mills identifies this holistic epistemology as the sociological imagination and identifies its task and its promise as a way of knowing that enables individuals to grasp the relations between history and biography within society. Using ones standpoint to engage the sociological imagination can empower the individual. My fullest concentration of energy is available to me, Audre Lorde maintains, only when I integrate all the parts of who I am, openly, allowing power from particular sources of my living to flow back and forth freely through all my different selves, without the restriction of externally imposed definition. Black Women as Agents of Knowledge Living life as an African-American woman is a necessary prerequisite for producing Black feminist thought because within Black womens communities thought is validated and produced with reference to a particular set of historical, material, and epistemological conditions. African-American women who adhere to the idea that claims about Black women must be substantiated by Black womens sense of our own experiences and who anchor our knowledge claims in an Afrocentric feminist epistemology have produced a rich tradition of Black feminist thought. Traditionally such women were blues singers, poets, autobiographers, storytellers, and orators validated by everyday Black women as experts on a Black womens standpoint. Only a few unusual African-American feminist scholars have been able to defy Eurocentric masculinist epistemologies and explicitly embrace an Afrocentric feminist epistemology. Consider Alice Walkers description of Zora Neal Hurston: In my mind, Zora Neale Hurston, Billie Holiday, and Bessie Smith form a sort of unholy trinity. Zora belongs in the tradition of black women singers, rather than among the literati. . . . Like Billie and Jessie she followed her own road, believed in her own gods pursued her own dreams, and refused to separate herself from common people. Zora Neal Hurston is an exception for prior to 1950, few African-American women earned advanced degrees and most of those who did complied with Eurocentric masculinist epistemologies. Although these women worked on behalf of Black women, they did so within the confines of pervasive race and gender oppression. Black women scholars were in a position to see the exclusion of African-American women from scholarly discourse, and the thematic content of their work often reflected their interest in examining a Black womens standpoint. However, their tenuous status in academic institutions led them to adhere to Eurocentric masculinist epistemologies so that their work would be accepted as scholarly. As a result, while they produced Black feminist thought, those African-American women most likely to gain academic credentials were often least likely to produce Black feminist thought that used an Afrocentric feminist epistemology. An ongoing tension exists for Black women as agents of knowledge, a tension rooted in the sometimes conflicting demands of Afrocentricity and feminism. Those Black women who are feminists are critical of how Black culture and many of its traditions oppress women. For example, the strong pronatal beliefs in African-American communities that foster early motherhood among adolescent girls, the lack of self-actualization that can accompany the double-day of paid employment and work in the home, and the emotional and physical abuse that many Black women experience from their fathers, lovers, and husbands all reflect practices opposed by African-American women who are feminists. But these same women may have a parallel desire as members of an oppressed racial group to affirm the value of that same culture and traditions. Thus strong Black mothers appear in Black womens literature, Black womens economic contributions to families is lauded, and a curious silence exists concerning domestic abuse. As more African-American women earn advanced degrees, the range of Black feminist scholarship is expanding. Increasing numbers of African-American women scholars are explicitly choosing to ground their work in Black womens experiences, and, by doing so, they implicitly adhere to an Afrocentric feminist epistemology. Rather than being restrained by their both/and status of marginality, these women make creative use of their outsider-within status and produce innovative Afrocentric feminist thought. The difficulties these women face lie less in demonstrating that they have mastered white male epistemologies than in resisting the hegemonic nature of these patterns of thought in order to see, value, and use existing alternative Afrocentric feminist ways of knowing. In establishing the legitimacy of their knowledge claims, Black women scholars who want to develop Afrocentric feminist thought may encounter the often conflicting standards of three key groups. First, Black feminist thought must be validated by ordinary Atrican-American women who, in the words of Hannah Nelson, grow to womanhood in a world where the saner you are, the madder you are made to appear. To be credible in the eyes of this group, scholars must be personal advocates for their material, be accountable for the consequences of their work, have lived or experienced their material in some fashion, and be willing to engage in dialogues about their findings with ordinary, everyday people. Second, Black feminist thought also must be accepted by the community of Black women scholars. These scholars place varying amounts of importance on rearticulating a Black womens standpoint using an Afrocentric feminist epistemology. Third, Afrocentric feminist thought within academia must be prepared to confront Eurocentric masculinist political and epistemological requirements. The dilemma facing Black women scholars engaged in creating Black feminist thought is that a knowledge claim that meets the criteria of adequacy for one group and thus is judged to be an acceptable knowledge claim may not be translatable into the terms of a different group. Using the example of Black English, June Jordan illustrates the difficulty of moving among epistemologies: You cannot translate instances of Standard English preoccupied with abstraction or with nothing/nobody evidently alive into Black English. That would warp the language into uses antithetical to the guiding perspective of its community of users. Rather you must first change those Standard English sentences, themselves, into ideas consistent with the person-centered assumptions of Black English. Although both worldviews share a common vocabulary, the ideas themselves defy direct translation. For Black women who are agents of knowledge, the marginality that accompanies outsider-within status can be the source of both frustration and creativity. In an attempt to minimize the differences between the cultural context of African-American communities and the expectations of social institutions, some women dichotomize their behavior and become two different people. Over time, the strain of doing this can be enormous. Others reject their cultural context and work against their own best interests by enforcing the dominant groups specialized thought. Still others manage to inhabit both contexts but do so critically, using their outsider-within perspectives as a source of insights and ideas. But while outsiders within can make substantial personal cost. Eventually it comes to you, observes Lorraine Hansberry, the thing that makes you exceptional, if you are at all, is inevitably that which must also make you lonely. Once Black feminist scholars face the notion that, on certain dimensions of a Black womens standpoint, it may be fruitless to try and translate ideas from an Afrocentric feminist epistemology into a Eurocentric masculinist framework, then other choices emerge. Rather than trying to uncover universal knowledge claims that can withstand the translation from one epistemology to another (initially, at least), Black women intellectuals might find efforts to rearticulate a Black womens standpoi nt especially fruitful. Rearticulating a Black womens standpoint refashions the concrete and reveals the more universal human dimensions of Black womens everyday lives. I date all my work, notes Nikki Giovanni, because I think poetry, or any writing, is but a reflection of the moment. The universal comes from the particular. Bell Hooks maintains, my goal as a feminist thinker and theorist is to take that abstraction and articulate it in a language that renders it accessiblenot less complex or rigorousbut simply more accessible. The complexity exists; interpreting it remains the unfulfilled challenge for Black women intellectuals. Situated Knowledge, Subjugated Knowledge, and Partial Perspectives My life seems to be an increasing revelation of the intimate trace of universal struggle, claims June Jordan: You begin with your family and the kids on the block, and next you open your eyes to what you call your people and that leads you into land reform into Black English into Angola leads you back to your own bed where you lie by yourself; wondering if you deserve to be peaceful, or trusted or desired or left to the freedom of your own unfaltering heart. And the scale shrinks to the use of a skull: your own interior cage. Lorraine Hansberry expresses a similar idea: I believe that one of the most sound ideas in dramatic writing is that in order to create the universal, you must pay very great attention to the specific. Universality, I think, emerges from the truthful identity of what is. Jordan and Hansberrys insights that universal struggle and truth may wear a particularistic, intimate face suggest a new epistemological stance concerning how we negotiate competing knowledge claims and identify truth. The context in which African-American womens ideas are nurtured or suppressed matters. Understanding the content and epistemology of Black womens ideas as specialized knowledge requires attending to the context from which those ideas emerge. While produced by individuals, Black feminist thought as situated knowledge is embedded in the communities in which African-American women find ourselves. A Black womens standpoint and those of other oppressed groups is not only embedded in a context but exists in a situation characterized by domination. Because Black womens ideas have been suppressed, this suppression has stimulated African-American women to create knowledge that empowers people to resist domination. Thus Afrocentric feminist thought represents a subjugated knowledge. A Black womens standpoint may provide a preferred stance from which to view the matrix of domination because, in principle, Black feminist thought as specialized thought is less likely than the specialized knowledge produced by dominant groups to deny the connection between ideas and the vested interests of their creators. However, Black feminist thought as subjugated knowledge is not exempt from critical analysis, because subjugation is not grounds for an epistemology. Despite African-American womens potential power to reveal new insights about the matrix of domination, a Black womens standpoint is only one angle of vision. Thus Black feminist thought represents a partial perspective. The overarching matrix of domination houses multiple groups, each with varying experiences with penalty and privilege that produce corresponding partial perspectives, situated knowledges, and, for clearly identifiable subordinate groups, subjugated knowledges. No one group has a clear angle of vision. No one group possesses the theory or methodology that allows it to discover the absolute truth or, worse yet, proclaim its theories and methodologies as the universal norm evaluating other groups experiences. Given that groups are unequal in power in making themselves heard, dominant groups have a vested interest in suppressing the knowledge produced by subordinate groups. Given the existence of multiple and competing knowledge claims to truth produced by groups with partial perspectives, what epistemological approach offers the most promise? Dialogue and Empathy Western social and political thought contains two alternative approaches to ascertaining truth. The first, reflected in positivist science, has long claimed that absolute truths exist and that the task of scholarship is to develop objective, unbiased tools of science to measure these truths. . . . Relativism, the second approach, has been forwarded as the antithesis of and inevitable outcome of rejecting a positivist science. From a relativist perspective all groups produce specialized thought and each groups thought is equally valid. No group can claim to have a better interpretation of the truth than another. In a sense, relativism represents the opposite of scientific ideologies of objectivity. As epistemological stances, both positivist science and relativism minimize the importance of specific location in influencing a groups knowledge claims, the power inequities among groups that produce subjugated knowledges, and the strengths and limitations of partial perspective. The existence of Black feminist thought suggests another alternative to the ostensibly objective norms of science and to relativisms claims that groups with competing knowledge claims are equal. . . This approach to Afrocentric feminist thought allows African-American women to bring a Black womens standpoint to larger epistemological dialogues concerning the nature of the matrix of domination. Eventually such dialogues may get us to a point at which, claims Elsa Barkley Brown, all people can learn to center in another experience, validate it, and judge it by its own standards without need of comparison or need to adopt t hat framework as their own. In such dialogues, one has no need to decenter anyone in order to center someone else; one has only to constantly, appropriately, pivot the center. Those ideas that are validated as true by African-American women, African-American men, Latina lesbians, Asian-American women, Puerto Rican men, and other groups with distinctive standpoints, with each group using the epistemological approaches growing from its unique standpoint, thus become the most objective truths. Each group speaks from its own standpoint and shares its own partial, situated knowledge. But because each group perceives its own truth as partial, its knowledge is unfinished. Each group becomes better able to consider other groups standpoints without relinquishing the uniqueness of its own standpoint or suppressing other groups partial perspectives. What is always needed in the appreciation of art, or life, maintains Alice Walker, is the larger perspective. Connections made, or at least attempted, where none existed before, the straining to encompass in ones glance at the varied world the common thread, the unifying theme through immense diversity. Partiality and not universality is the condition of being heard; individuals and groups forwarding knowledge claims without owning their position are deemed less credible than those who do. Dialogue is critical to the success of this epistemological approach, the type of dialogue long extant in the Afrocentric call-and-response tradition whereby power dynamics are fluid, everyone has a voice, but everyone must listen and res pond to other voices in order to be allowed to remain in the community. Sharing a common cause fosters dialogue and encourages groups to transcend their differences. . . . African-American women have been victimized by race, gender, and class oppression. But portraying Black women solely as passive, unfortunate recipients of racial and sexual abuse stifles notions that Black women can actively work to change our circumstances and bring about changes in our lives. Similarly, presenting African-American women solely as heroic figures who easily engage in resisting oppression on all fronts minimizes the very real costs of oppression and can foster the perception that Black women need no help because we can take it. Black feminist thoughts emphasis on the ongoing interplay between Black womens oppression and Black womens activism presents the matrix of domination as responsive to human agency. Such thought views the world as a dynamic place where the goal is not merely to survive or to fit in or to cope; rather, it becomes a place where we feel ownership and accountability. The existence of Afrocentric feminist thought suggests that there is always choice, and power to act, no matter how bleak the situation may appear to be. Viewing the world as one in the making raises the issue of individual responsibility for bringing about change. It also shows that while individual empowerment is key, only collective action can effectively generate lasting social transformation of political and economic institutions.
Thursday, March 26, 2020
Socrates Socrates arguments that it would be wrong to escape from prison is as follows. In Critos, Socrates explains to his friend Crito that escaping from prison would go against many of the thins that he (Socrates) believes in; seeking virtue, seeking the truth, not repaying an evil with another evil, obeying the laws of the state and so on. He has lived by, and has fought for these beliefs in his life. In part those are the reasons he is in prison. It is because he believes in those things that he will not escape. Even if it seems that he has been wronged. Socrates will not give up what he believes in order to live a few more years. He believes that living honorably and seeking virtue are the most important thins in life and life is not worth living if he must stop seeking the truth. In the first argument Crito tries to convince Socrates to escape by telling him that, The world will never believe that we were anxious to save you but that you yourself refused to escape.(22-23 Johnson) He tries to tell Socrates that if he does not escape then people will blame his friends for not helping him escape. He also tells him that his friends will be hurt by his death and that by not escaping his enemies will majority of the people think. What they think does not matter, it is what the few that right. Socrates also tells him that if he does escape then everything what he has said and believed in the pas would be a lie and then he would be proving his enemies right. By not escaping he shows them that they are the ones who are doing wrong. Another reason that Socrates gives for not wanting to escape from prison is that .we ought never to do wrong at all.(26 Johnson) Socrates reminded Crito of things that they had discussed in the past, one of which was wrongdoing. Socrates reminds him that one should never repay a wrong with a wrong. He says that even though it might be wrong for him to be sentence to death, he will not do something wrong in order to correct his situation. He says that escaping is wrong so he will not do it. This goes back to what he said earlier in the argument. He stated, ..we should set the highest value no on living, but on living well.(25 Johnson) Socrates goes on to say that escape is also wrong because he would be disobeying the laws of the Athenian government by escaping from prison. And by disobeying the laws of the Athenian government he would also be disobeying God. He says that it is against the law of God to use violence against your father or mother; and that it is much worse to use violence against your country (27 Johnson). He explains how Athens gave him an education, marriage, protection, and so many other things. But now that Athens wants to enforce the law he is not willing to accept it. He tells Crito that we have to obey the law, if not there will be anarchy. He again reminded Crito of the things that they talked about in the past and asks him if all those things had been true. Crito finally agrees and he accepts Socrates fate. I think that Socrates is just trying to make his life seem full filled. He wants to show that his life was not a waste of time and that his ideas on life were valid and correct. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. would agree that it would be wrong for Socrates to escape from prison. The reason is, as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. explains one of the four basic steps in nonviolent campaigns. He states, one who breaks an unjust law must do so willingly so openly, lovingly, and willingness to accept the penalty. (479, King) Dr. King like Socrates believed in laws and agreed that they are necessary to avoid anarchy. The difference between Dr. King and Socrates is that Socrates did not think that the laws were just or unjust he just believed that one should obey the laws of
Friday, March 6, 2020
20 Synonyms for Ghost 20 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"GhostÃ¢â¬ 20 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"GhostÃ¢â¬ By Mark Nichol Ghost conjures an image of a visual but incorporeal representation of a person, but not all ghosts are alike, and like ghost, most of its synonyms also have connotations that apply to the everyday, substantial world. Here are twenty of those terms, with references to their natural connotations as well as supernatural ones: 1. apparition: a ghostly figure, or a sight that is unexpected or unusual 2. bogey (or bogie or bogy): synonymous with phantom and spirit, but also something that prompts fear or dread; by extension, an unidentified aircraft, especially an enemy warplane (also the source of the term bogeyman often spelled boogeyman referring to a monster whose name is invoked by parents or other adults to frighten children into obedience 3. banshee: a female spirit whose appearance or wailing cry presages death 4. bogle: synonymous with specter (the word from which bogey and its variants were derived) 5. eidolon: synonymous with phantom, but also refers to an exemplar or ideal 6. familiar (or familiar spirit): a spirit that takes animal form and protects or serves a person, especially a witch (also refers to flesh-and-blood figures, including a companion or other well-known person or a person seen frequently in a specific place or in general, a household attendant for a important official, or somebody who knows a subject well 7. haunt (or hant): synonymous with ghost; also, a frequented location, or, as a verb, to visit or reappear or recur frequently, or to trouble, or to inhabit or visit (said of a ghost) 8. materialization: synonymous with apparition 9. phantasm (or fantasm): synonymous with specter; also, an illusion or product of the imagination, or a mental image of a physical object 10. phantom: synonymous with apparition, but other figurative senses include something that is elusive or that has no physical form, including a representation, or something that evokes dread 11. poltergeist: a noisy, mischievous ghost 12. shade: a spirit, or a fleeting or unreal appearance, in addition to the standard meanings associated with the obscuring of light 13. shadow: synonymous with apparition, in addition to literal and figurative senses regarding partial darkness 14. specter (or spectre): a visible ghost; also refers figuratively to some threat or imminent disturbance, such as the threat of famine or war 15. spirit: a ghost that may or may not be visible, or a being capable of possessing a person; also, an animating force, a supernatural being, or a characteristic quality or temper 16. spook: synonymous with specter, but also slang referring to a spy 17. sprite: synonymous with ghost, though more often synonymous with elf or fairy or used to refer to an elflike person 18. vision: a supernatural appearance, not necessary of a lifelike figure, that reveals something to the viewer, in addition to connotations associated with sight as well as imagination 19. visitant: a visitor from a spirit realm; also, a real-life visitor 20. wraith: synonymous with specter, but also has the sense of a representation of a living person that appears to another just before that personÃ¢â¬â¢s death; also, like shadow, refers to a remnant, either of a person or a thing Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the General category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:15 Terms for Those Who Tell the FutureThe Many Forms of the Verb TO BE20 Clipped Forms and Their Place (If Any) in Formal Writing
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Hofstede and Cultural Issues for Multinational Corporation - Essay Example India has Power Distance Index (PDI) score of 77 compared to UKÃ¢â¬â¢s 35. The high score for India is attributed to the fact that there exist social hierarchies called castes in Indian society and the large economic gap between the different caste levels. Placing it into an organizational perspective, it can be expected that there are wider salary differentials for different levels of position in an Indian organization as compared to a British one. Managers in the UK are more probable to consult their subordinates because they have a greater sense of equality than Indians who expect that their decisions are followed with minimal questions from subordinates. Due to the great importance given to status and privilege, Vodafone should expect certain events occurring among the employees of Hutchison Essar. For example, conflicts may arise such as qualms of a higher caste person placed under the directive of a lower caste manager as pointed out in the study of Communicaid (2004). This may seem trivial to a foreign company such as Vodafone which bases its promotion to performance rather than societal status or ranking of a person. Vodafone could face employees who are unwilling to recognize a lower caste superior and these persons may sabotage the whole operation. On the other side of the coin, they may find it difficult to persuade highly qualified lower caste persons to assume higher positions because of their fear of retribution from the higher castes that the person will be governing.